||delphia > The Rest of Faith- No.1 by Charles G. Finney from "The Oberlin Evangelist"
The Rest of Faith- No. 1
Charles G. Finney
A Voice from the Philadelphian Church Age
by Charles Grandison Finney
Public Domain Text
Reformatted by Katie Stewart
from "The Oberlin Evangelist"
September 11, 1839
THE REST OF FAITH--No. 1
by the Rev. C. G. Finney
Text.--Heb. 3:19 & 4:1."So we see
that they could not enter in because of unbelief. Let us therefore fear, lest a promise
being left us of entering into his rest, any of you should seem to come short of
The following is the order in which I will direct your attention.
I. Inquire of whom the Apostle is speaking in this text, and into what it is
said they could not enter.
II. Why they could not enter in.
III. Show that temporal Canaan was typical of the rest of faith.
IV. What is implied in this rest.
V. How we may seem to come short of it.
VI. How we may take possession of it.
I. I am to inquire of whom the Apostle is speaking and into what they could not
In this connection the Apostle is speaking of the Jews; and that into which they
could not enter was temporal Canaan, as is evident from the context.
II. Why they could not enter in.
It is asserted in the text, that they could not enter into Canaan, because of unbelief.
The Jews had arrived upon the borders of the promised land. And Moses deputed a number
of individuals as spies, and sent them to spy out the land. They went up and surveyed
the land, and returned bringing some of the fruits of the land, and represented to
the children of Israel, that it was an exceeding good land, but that it was impossible
for them to take possession of it--that the towns and cities were walled up to heaven--that
the country was inhabited by giants--and that therefore they were utterly unable
to take possession of the land.
In this testimony all the spies agreed except Caleb and Joshua. This discouraged
the people and produced a rebellion that prevented that generation from taking possession
of Canaan. Their confidence in divine assistance was utterly shaken, and their unbelief
prevented any such attempt to take possession of the land, as would otherwise have
been made with complete success. The bringing up of the evil report, by those who
were sent out to reconnoiter, and their failing to encourage and lead forward the
people, were the means of that generation being turned back, and utterly wasted in
the wilderness. God was so incensed against them for their want of confidence in
his help, and of his ability, and willingness to give them possession, that he "swore
in his wrath, that they should not enter into his rest."
III. Show that temporal Canaan was typical of the rest of faith.
It is plain from the context that the Apostle supposes the land of Canaan to have
been typical of the rest of faith. The land of Canaan was to have been their rest
after their perilous journey from Egypt. In this land they were to have been secure
from the power of all their enemies round about. He concludes the third chapter of
this epistle, by asserting that "they could not enter into this rest because
of unbelief." And he begins the fourth chapter, by exhorting the Jews, to whom
he was writing "to fear lest a promise being left them of entering into rest"
[the rest of faith,] "any should seem to come short of it." And in the
third verse he affirms, that "we who have believed do enter into rest."
IV. What is implied in this rest.
- 1. Not a state of spiritual indolence.
- 2. Not waiting for God to do his own work, and ours too. Some people seem to
be waiting for God, and to have such an idea of his sovereignty as to throw upon
him the responsibility of doing not only that which belongs to him, but that also
which belongs to themselves. They seem to forget that holiness in man is his own
act, and talk as if God would make men holy without the proper and diligent exercise
of their own powers. Others are waiting for God to convert their children, and their
neighbors, and the world, without any instrumentality of theirs, affirming that God
can, and will do his own work, in his own way, and in his own time. Thus entirely
overlooking the fact, that when God works, he works by means. This is anything but
a right view of the subject, and that is anything but faith which leads to these
views, and to this course of conduct; and this state of spiritual indolence, and
this waiting for God are any thing but gospel rest. Faith always implies a diligent
and constant use of means. Faith respects not only the fact that God will do thus
and thus, but also recognizes the fact that he will do it by the appointed means.
Consequently true faith in God leads to any thing but the neglect of employing the
suitable instrumentality to effect the desired object.
- 3. The rest of faith does not imply that the Church is to be sanctified, and
the world converted, without the diligent and effectual cooperation of those who
are coworkers with God.
- 4. Nor rest from labors of love.
- 5. Nor rest from watchfulness. Nor from any of those holy exertions that are
indispensable to guard against our enemies in this state of trial, and while in an
enemy's country. Nor does it imply any cessation from a diligent use of all the means
of instruction, and of grace, both for our own and others' edification, and salvation.
- 6. Nor the casting off responsibility, and the giving ourselves up to be drifted
in any direction, by the tides of influence which surround us.
- 7. Nor does it imply an exemption from temptation. Christ was tempted in all
points like as we are. And from our circumstances in this world, it is impossible
that we should not continue to be the constant subjects of temptation, from the world,
the flesh and the devil. Nor does it imply exemption from all heaviness and distress
of mind. Christ was in heaviness. Paul had great heaviness and continual sorrow of
heart on account of his brethren. And Peter in his general epistle to the saints
says, "Now are we in heaviness through manifold temptations." Nor does
it imply exemption from severe trials and mental conflicts, for these things may
always be expected while we are in the flesh. And the gospel plainly teaches that
to us it is given, not only to believe in Christ, but also to suffer for his sake.
But gospel rest does imply,
- 1. A complete cessation from all our own selfish works, the end of which is to
promote our own interests, temporal or eternal.
- 2. It implies a cessation from all self-righteous efforts. By self-righteous
efforts, I mean,
- (1) All attempts to recommend ourselves to God by our own works.
- (2) All efforts to avoid punishment, or escape from the wrath of God by any efforts
of our own.
- (3) All those things which originate in our own convictions, and are performed
in the strength of our own resolutions without being influenced thereto by the love
of God in our heart.
- 3. This rest implies a state of mind that feels no necessity for attempting anything
in our own strength. There is a state of mind, which perhaps is better known by experience
than described by words, in which an individual feels pressed with a necessity of
doing something, and every thing in a manner which shall be acceptable to God. And
yet, on account of his unbelief, he feels agonized with the thought that he is in
no such sense strengthened by the Spirit of God, as shall, as a matter of fact, enable
him, and cause him to do that which his convictions of duty demand of him. This is
a distracting restless state of mind, and the exact opposite of the rest of faith.
Faith so leans upon God, as to bring the mind into a state of sweet repose and confidence
that God will help, and that there is no necessity for making any efforts in our
- 4. It implies exemption from all the carefulness induced by unbelief on every
subject. Faith reposes in God for time and for eternity, for direction, and help,
and provisions in temporal as well as spiritual matters. It excludes all carefulness,
in the proper sense of that term, on every subject.
- 5. It implies exemption from the fear of death, and hell. Faith produces that
perfect love that casteth out fear--the fear of future want--of the judgments of
God--that we shall be overcome by our enemies spiritual or temporal--and of all that
fear that hath torment.
- 6. It implies an exemption from a sense of condemnation. "There is no condemnation
to them who are in Christ Jesus, who walk not after the flesh but after the Spirit."
- 7. A rest from the reproaches of conscience. In a state of unbelief, conscience
often inflicts grievous wounds upon the peace of the soul. But when we take possession
of the rest of faith, the conscience is as quiet as a lamb.
- 8. It implies an exemption from being afflicted or distressed with the occurrences
of life. The soul is able to meet with calmness and sweetness that which would otherwise
throw the mind into a state of the utmost agitation and distress. By this I do not
mean, as I have said above, that individuals will have no trials; but that this state
of mind will enable them to pass through their trials with a composed and heavenly
temper. Mrs. President Edwards says of herself, that for some years there were two
trials which she thought she should be unable to bear. One was the loss of her husband's
confidence, and ill treatment from him--the other was the loss of the confidence
and respect of the people of the town in which they lived. But when she entered fully
into the rest of faith, she declares, that it did not appear to her, as if those
things could, in the least, affect her happiness or disturb the repose of her mind.
It appeared to her as if she were as far above being discomposed by anything that
could occur in the providence of God, as the sun is high above the earth--that to
be treated with the utmost disrespect by her husband--to be cast out by the people
of the town to perish in the snow, would not break up the deep tranquillity and repose
of her mind in God.
- 9. It implies exemption from the dominion of temptation. I have said, that in
this life, we may always as a thing of course expect more or less temptation. But
this rest is a state of mind in which temptation will not prevail. It will assail
us, and make a greater or less impression upon our minds, i.e. it will in a greater
or less degree agitate and ruffle our feelings in proportion to the strength of our
- 10. Finally, and in a word, it implies exemption from the strength and dominion
of sin in all its forms. The case supposed by the Apostle in the seventh chapter
of Romans, to illustrate the influence of law over one who is carnal and sold under
sin, is a striking exemplification of that state of slavery to lust and passion in
which great multitudes, both in and out of the Church, are. And the striking transition
from that state of mind into that described in the eighth chapter, exactly illustrates
what I mean by an individual passing from a state of slavery and sin into a state
of liberty and rest.
V. How we may seem to come short of it.
The word rendered seem here does not imply what is commonly meant by the English
term seem, as if the coming short were only in appearance and not in fact. But from
the manner in which it is rendered in other passages, it is manifest that it means
to express the actual coming short, as if the Apostle had said, "lest any of
you should be seen to come short of it."
- 1. We may fail of entering into this rest by mistaking its nature, and thinking
we have it while we have not. Many have seemed to suppose that it consists in spiritual
indolence, or in such an exemption from responsibility as would give the mind up
to be drifted without resistance in any direction in which the corrupt currents of
this world might drive it. They seem to get the idea that all things are lawful to
them in such a sense, that almost any kind of indulgence is consistent with spiritual
purity, and the love of God. Gospel rest, to them, is the mere casting off of responsibility--a
lolling and wallowing in their own filthy indulgences.
- 2. Many fail to enter into this rest, by not realizing that there is any such
state. They seem not to know any thing about the tranquilizing effects of faith,
and that state of deep repose in God which those enjoy who have taken possession
of the promised rest. They seem to suppose that the Christian warfare consists in
that mental conflict which they are conscious is going on within themselves, with
their hearts and consciences. They are conscious of a continual mutiny being kept
up between the conflicting powers of their own minds, which they express by saying
they are constantly sinning and repenting, by which nothing more can be meant than
that their hearts and consciences are at fearful war with each other. They appear
to be utter strangers to the sweet peace and repose of mind which results from a
harmony of the powers of their own mind, where their conscience and their heart are
at one. Understanding from the Bible that their warfare is to continue through this
life, and mistaking their inward conflicts for the Christian warfare, they take it
for granted that no such rest as that of which I have spoken, exists.
- 3. Many fail to enter into this rest because they think it belongs exclusively
to heaven. Now that this rest will be more perfect in heaven than it is on earth
is undeniably true. But it is the same in kind, on earth as in heaven, just as holiness
is. Now if persons do not become holy on earth, how should they hope to be holy in
heaven? And if this rest be not begun on earth, it will never be enjoyed in heaven.
- 4. Many come short of this rest by supposing that the world, the flesh and Satan
put the attainment of it utterly out of the question. It is amazing to see how little
of the gospel is understood and received by the Church. It would seem that in the
estimation of the great mass of the Church, the gospel itself has made no adequate
provision for the entire sanctification of men in this world of temptation. Just
as if God were unable to overcome these enemies in any other way than by snatching
his children out of their reach; and that Christ came not so much to destroy the
works of the devil in this world, as to drive his people out of it and get them off
from his ground--that he destroys the flesh because he is unable to overcome it--and
that he will burn up the world because he is unable to prevent its leading his people
into sin. Now it does appear to me that God's glory demands, that the battle should
be fought, and the victory won in this world. The Apostle plainly represents us,
under the grace of God, as not only conquerors but "more than conquerors."
And he certainly has but a very limited knowledge of the Bible, or of the grace of
God who can assume that the world, the flesh, and Satan are too strong for Christ
so that he cannot save his people from their sins.
- 5. Ignorance of the power of faith is another reason why persons do not enter
into this rest. They do not understand that as a matter of fact, faith in the existence,
power, goodness, providence and grace of God--that unwavering confidence in all he
does and says, would in its own nature as a thing of course, bring them into the
rest of which I am speaking.
Suppose a ship should be bestormed at sea, that all on board is confusion, dismay,
and almost despair--the ship is driven by a fierce tempest upon a lee shore. Now
suppose that in the midst of all the uncertainty, racking, and almost distracting
anxiety of the passengers and crew, a voice should be heard from heaven, they knowing
it to be the voice of the eternal God, assuring them that the ship should be safe--that
not a hair of their heads should perish--and that they should ride out the storm
in perfect safety. It is easy to see that the effect of this announcement upon different
minds would be in precise proportion to their confidence in its truth. If they believed
it, they would by no means throw up the helm, and give themselves up to indolence
and let the ship drive before the waves, but standing, every man at his place, and
managing the ship in the best manner possible, they would enjoy a quiet and composed
mind in proportion to their confidence that all would be well. If any did not believe
it, their anxiety and trouble would continue of course, and they might wonder at
the calmness of those who did; and even reproach them for not being as anxious as
themselves. You might see among them every degree of feeling from the despair and
deep forebodings of utter unbelief, up to the full measure of the entire consolation
of perfect faith. Now the design of this illustration is to show the nature of faith,
and to demonstrate that entire confidence in God naturally hushes all the tumults
of the mind, and settles it into a state of deep repose--that it does not beget inaction,
presumption or spiritual indolence any more than the revelation of which I have spoken,
would beget inattention to its management on board the ship.
- 6. Another reason is, many are discouraged by the misrepresentations of the spies
who have been sent to spy out the land. It is a painful and really an alarming consideration,
that so many of those who are leaders in Israel, and who are supposed by the Church
to have gone up and reconnoitered the whole land of spiritual experience, that almost
with united voice they should return to the Church, and represent that we are unable
to go up and possess the land. Of all those that were sent by Moses to spy out the
land only two had any faith in the promise of God, whereas all the rest united in
their testimony that they were unable to possess the land. And that rest was unattainable
to them in this life. So it appears to me in these days. Those that are appointed
to direct and encourage the people, by first acquainting themselves thoroughly with
the ground to be possessed, and then carrying to the people the confidence of faith,
encouraging them, not only by the promises of God, but by their own experience and
observation, that the land may be possessed--instead of this they bring up an evil
report, discourage the hearts of the people of God, maintain that the grace of God
has made no sufficient provisions for their taking possession of the land of holiness
in this life, that the world, the flesh and the devil are such mighty Anakims as
that to overcome them is utterly out of the question, and that no hope remains, only
as we flee from their territories and get out of the world the best way we can. Now
I greatly fear that will happen to them which came upon the spies in the days of
Moses. They were driven back, and their carcasses fell in the wilderness. God swore
in his wrath, that they should not enter into his rest. And not only they, but that
entire generation who were deceived by them, and who could not enter in because of
unbelief, were wasted away and died without rest in the wilderness. How many generations
of the Church of God shall thus be wasted away in the wilderness of sin! How long
will generation after generation of spies continue to bring up their evil report,
discouraging the hearts, and confirming the unbelief of the people, and effectually
preventing their taking possession of that rest which remains for the people of God!
- 7. Many are discouraged by the present and past attainments of Christians. They
are constantly stumbled by the consideration that holy men of former and present
times have known so little of full gospel salvation. They might just as reasonably
let the past and present state of the world shake their confidence in the fact that
the world will ever be converted. And indeed, whether they are aware of it or not,
I suppose they have as much confidence in the one as in the other. They seem not
to be aware of the fact that they are full of unbelief in regard to the world's conversion,
while they are sensible that they have no confidence in the attainableness of rest
from all their sins in this life. The reason why they are sensible of unbelief in
the one case and not in the other is, the one is placed before them as a present
duty, in attempting to perform which they experience the chilling influence of unbelief--while
the other is a thing which they have never tried to do, and which they do not understand
to be their duty to do. Consequently a want of confidence in respect to this, is
not the object of the mind's attention. Certainly a state of mind that can be discouraged
by the past or present history of the Church, would of course feel the same discouragement,
and have the same reason for discouragement, in regard to the world's conversion.
- 8. Others fail to take possession of this rest on account of the ignorance of
the real attainments of the ancient and modern saints. They have taken but little
pains to examine carefully into the history of eminent saints either ancient or modern,
and of course do not know what the grace of God has actually done for men.
- 9. Many fail from a regard to their reputation. They have so much fear of being
called heretics, fanatics, perfectionists or some other opprobrious name, that they
resist the Spirit and truth of God.
- 10. Pride and prejudice prevent a careful and honest examination of the subject.
I have been amazed, and I might add ashamed, to witness the great ignorance of the
Bible, and of the real merits of this question, in the articles that have appeared
in the different periodicals of the present day. They have reminded me of the conduct
of Dr. Hill in the late General Assembly, when the discussion of the question of
slavery came up. He arose and read certain passages of scripture, with as much assurance
as if he supposed they had been overlooked by the abolitionists--as if he supposed
it would be entirely manifest that these scriptures were a "Thus saith the Lord"
in the face of all abolitionism. He afterwards intimated that he was master of the
subject, and seemed not to understand that all his arguments and scriptures, and
grounds of objection had often been weighed in the balance and found wanting. Now
just so it has appeared to me when I have read the various articles that have appeared
of late against the attainableness of entire sanctification in this life. The least
I could say, would be in the words of President Edwards, that "they have not
well considered the matter."
- 11. Many fail because they are too proud to confess their ignorance and want
of spirituality, and put themselves in the attitude of inquirers. A vast many individuals
are not aware of their own ignorance and want of spirituality, and many who are convinced
of their ignorance and their destitution of spirituality, seem to think it indispensable
to their usefulness to conceal their defects and to keep up the appearance, at least,
of sound knowledge and sound piety. And some, how many I cannot say, have adopted
it as a principle not to speak much of their own experience in the divine life.
- 12. Many are ashamed to be taught by the ignorant, though spiritual Christians.
There are perhaps but few among ministers and Church officers who might not take
some most useful and salutary lessons from some obscure female or other unnoticed
person in the Church. Unless a man is willing to sit at the feet of any spiritual
child of God, he is never likely to know what that rest is that remaineth for the
people of God.
- 13. Pride of learning and dependence upon their own powers of criticism, have
done and are doing much to shut the learned world out of faith. There is a great
tendency in a certain class of minds to substitute their own reasonings for faith,
to believe what they can establish by reasoning and argument, and to hold as fanatical
or doubtful any depth of spirituality that they cannot fathom by their "inch
of line." Nor do they seem aware that the confidence which they have in those
things which they cannot establish by reason, is not faith in the truth of God, but
a leaning to their own understanding. God's testimony is to be set aside unless it
is backed up and established by their own profound reasonings and criticisms.
- 14. Another reason is many settle down into a stereotyped orthodoxy and are opposed
to all advances in religious knowledge and experience.
- 15. Others fail because they are waiting and struggling for some preparation
before they go up and take possession of the land. They do not understand that they
are immediately to enter into this rest by faith. They are waiting for certain feelings
and views to prepare them to exercise faith, not knowing that these very views and
feelings are the effects of faith. Thus they expect the effect to precede the cause.
- 16. Others fail through sheer carelessness. The Apostle exhorts the Church to
take heed in this matter, and certainly without attention and inquiry this rest will
not be attained.
VI. How we may take possession of it.
This rest is to be possessed at once by anchoring down in naked faith upon the promises
of God. Take the illustration which I have already given, viz: the ship at sea. Suppose
she were dashing upon the rocks, and a voice from heaven should cry out, "Let
go your sheet anchor and all shall be safe." Suppose they believed that. With
what confidence and composure would they let go the anchor, understanding it to be
certain that it would bring them up and that they should ride out the storm. Now
this composure of mind, any one may see, might and would be entered upon at once
by an act of naked faith. Just so there are no circumstances in which men are ever
placed, where they may not enter into rest at once by anchoring down in naked faith
upon the promises of God. Let the first six verses of the 37 Psalm be an illustration
of what I mean. "Fret not thyself because of evildoers, neither be thou envious
against the workers of iniquity: For they shall soon be cut down like the grass,
and wither as the green herb. Trust in the Lord and do good; so shalt thou dwell
in the land, and verily thou shalt be fed. Delight thyself also in the Lord; and
he shall give thee the desires of thine heart. Commit thy way unto the Lord; trust
also in him, and he shall bring it to pass. And he shall bring forth thy righteousness
as the light, and thy judgment as the noonday." Now suppose an individual to
be borne down by the persecution of his enemies, or to be so situated in his temporal
circumstances as not to know what he should do for bread. Let him take hold upon
these promises, and peace and rest would flow in upon his mind, and light and joy
would spring up like the sun breaking through an ocean of storm.
Take the promise in Isa. 42:16. Suppose the soul to be surrounded with darkness,
perplexity, and doubt, with regard to the path of duty, or with regard to any other
matter--borne down under a weight of ignorance, and crushed with a sense of responsibility,
however deep his agony and his trials may be. Hark! Hear Jehovah saying, "I
will bring the blind by a way that they know not; I will lead them in paths that
they have not known. I will make darkness light before them, and crooked things straight.
These things will I do unto them and not forsake them." Now who does not see
that faith in this promise would make the soul in a moment as quiet as a weaned child.
It would at once become as calm as an ocean of love.
Take Isa. 41:10-14. Suppose a soul to be under circumstances of great temptation
from the world, the flesh and the devil, and ready to exclaim, "my feet are
slipping, and I shall fall into the hand of my enemies, I have no might against this
host. All my strength is weakness, and I shall dishonor my God." Hark again!
Hear the word of the Lord. "Fear thou not; for I am with thee: be not dismayed;
for I am thy God: I will strengthen thee; yea, I will help thee; yea, I will uphold
thee with the right hand of my righteousness. Behold, all they that were incensed
against thee shall be ashamed and confounded; they shall be as nothing; and they
that strive with thee shall perish. Thou shalt seek them, and shalt not find them,
even them that contended with thee: they that war against thee shall be as nothing,
and as a thing of nought. For I the Lord thy God will hold thy right hand, saying
unto thee, Fear not; I will help thee. Fear not, thou worm Jacob, and ye men of Israel:
I will help thee, saith the Lord, and thy redeemer, the Holy One of Israel. What
is here but an ocean of consolation to a mind that has faith?
Now what wait ye for. Anchor right down upon these promises. They can give you instant
rest. Nothing but faith is wanting to put you in possession of it. And nothing else
than faith can do you any good. There is no need of going around, or waiting to come
at this rest by degrees. It is to be entered upon at once. The land may be possessed
now in the twinkling of an eye.
I designed to have added several remarks, but as I intend to pursue this subject
at another time, I will defer them till then.
of easily misunderstood terms as defined by Mr. Finney himself.
Compiled by Katie Stewart
- Complacency, or Esteem: "Complacency, as a state of will or heart,
is only benevolence modified by the consideration or relation of right character
in the object of it. God, prophets, apostles, martyrs, and saints, in all ages, are
as virtuous in their self-denying and untiring labours to save the wicked, as they
are in their complacent love to the saints." Systematic Theology (LECTURE
VII). Also, "approbation of the character of its object. Complacency is
due only to the good and holy." Lectures to Professing Christians (LECTURE
- Disinterested Benevolence: "By disinterested benevolence I do not
mean, that a person who is disinterested feels no interest in his object of pursuit,
but that he seeks the happiness of others for its own sake, and not for the sake
of its reaction on himself, in promoting his own happiness. He chooses to do good
because he rejoices in the happiness of others, and desires their happiness for its
own sake. God is purely and disinterestedly benevolent. He does not make His creatures
happy for the sake of thereby promoting His own happiness, but because He loves their
happiness and chooses it for its own sake. Not that He does not feel happy in promoting
the happiness of His creatures, but that He does not do it for the sake of His own
gratification." Lectures to Professing Christians (LECTURE I).
- Divine Sovereignty: "The sovereignty of God consists in the independence
of his will, in consulting his own intelligence and discretion, in the selection
of his end, and the means of accomplishing it. In other words, the sovereignty of
God is nothing else than infinite benevolence directed by infinite knowledge."
Systematic Theology (LECTURE LXXVI).
- Election: "That all of Adam's race, who are or ever will be saved,
were from eternity chosen by God to eternal salvation, through the sanctification
of their hearts by faith in Christ. In other words, they are chosen to salvation
by means of sanctification. Their salvation is the end- their sanctification is a
means. Both the end and the means are elected, appointed, chosen; the means as really
as the end, and for the sake of the end." Systematic Theology (LECTURE LXXIV).
- Entire Sanctification: "Sanctification may be entire in two senses:
(1.) In the sense of present, full obedience, or entire consecration to God; and,
(2.) In the sense of continued, abiding consecration or obedience to God. Entire
sanctification, when the terms are used in this sense, consists in being established,
confirmed, preserved, continued in a state of sanctification or of entire consecration
to God." Systematic Theology (LECTURE LVIII).
- Moral Agency: "Moral agency is universally a condition of moral obligation.
The attributes of moral agency are intellect, sensibility, and free will." Systematic
Theology (LECTURE III).
- Moral Depravity: "Moral depravity is the depravity of free-will,
not of the faculty itself, but of its free action. It consists in a violation of
moral law. Depravity of the will, as a faculty, is, or would be, physical, and not
moral depravity. It would be depravity of substance, and not of free, responsible
choice. Moral depravity is depravity of choice. It is a choice at variance with moral
law, moral right. It is synonymous with sin or sinfulness. It is moral depravity,
because it consists in a violation of moral law, and because it has moral character."
Systematic Theology (LECTURE XXXVIII).
- Human Reason: "the intuitive faculty or function of the intellect...
it is the faculty that intuits moral relations and affirms moral obligation to act
in conformity with perceived moral relations." Systematic Theology (LECTURE
- Retributive Justice: "Retributive justice consists in treating every
subject of government according to his character. It respects the intrinsic merit
or demerit of each individual, and deals with him accordingly." Systematic
Theology (LECTURE XXXIV).
- Total Depravity: "Moral depravity of the unregenerate is without
any mixture of moral goodness or virtue, that while they remain unregenerate, they
never in any instance, nor in any degree, exercise true love to God and to man."
Systematic Theology (LECTURE XXXVIII).
- Unbelief: "the soul's withholding confidence from truth and the God
of truth. The heart's rejection of evidence, and refusal to be influenced by it.
The will in the attitude of opposition to truth perceived, or evidence presented."
Systematic Theology (LECTURE LV).
RELATED STUDY AID:
Index for "The
Oberlin Evangelist": Finney:
Voices of Philadelphia